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|Title:||Spherical crystallization of glycine from monodisperse microfluidic emulsions|
|Citation:||Toldy, A.I., Badruddoza, A.Z.M., Zheng, L., Hatton, T.A., Gunawan, R., Rajagopalan, R., Khan, S.A. (2012-08-01). Spherical crystallization of glycine from monodisperse microfluidic emulsions. Crystal Growth and Design 12 (8) : 3977-3982. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||Emulsion-based crystallization to produce spherical crystalline agglomerates (SAs) is an attractive route to control crystal size during downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, conventional methods of emulsification in stirred vessels pose several problems that limit the utility of emulsion-based crystallization. In this paper, we use capillary microfluidics to generate monodisperse water-in-oil emulsions. Capillary microfluidics, in conjunction with evaporative crystallization on a flat heated surface, enables controllable production of uniformly sized SAs of glycine in the 35-150 μm size range. We report detailed characterization of particle size, size distribution, structure, and polymorphic form. Further, online high-speed stereomicroscopic observations reveal several clearly demarcated stages in the dynamics of glycine crystallization from emulsion droplets. Rapid droplet shrinkage is followed by crystal nucleation within individual droplets. Once a nucleus is formed within a droplet, crystal growth is very rapid (<0.1 s) and occurs linearly along radially advancing fronts at speeds of up to 1 mm/s, similar to spherulitic crystal growth from impure melts. The spherulitic aggregate thus formed ages to yield the final SA morphology. Overall crystallization times are on the order of minutes, as compared to hours in conventional batch processes. We discuss these phenomena and their implications for the development of more generalized processes applicable to a variety of drug molecules. This work paves the way for microfluidics-enabled continuous spherical crystallization processes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.|
|Source Title:||Crystal Growth and Design|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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