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Title: Transition phenomena in the wake of a square cylinder
Authors: Luo, S.C. 
Tong, X.H.
Khoo, B.C. 
Issue Date: Feb-2007
Citation: Luo, S.C., Tong, X.H., Khoo, B.C. (2007-02). Transition phenomena in the wake of a square cylinder. Journal of Fluids and Structures 23 (2) : 227-248. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The transition phenomena in the wake of a square cylinder were investigated. The existence of mode A and mode B instabilities in the wake of a square cylinder was demonstrated. The critical Reynolds numbers for the inception of these instability modes were identified through the determination of discontinuities in the St-Re curves, and were found to have mean values of 160 and 204 for the onset of mode A and B instabilities, respectively. The spectra and time traces of the wake streamwise velocity component were found to display three distinct patterns in laminar, mode A and mode B flow regimes. Streamwise vortices with different wavelength at various Reynolds numbers were observed through different measures. The symmetries and evolution of the secondary vortices were observed using laser-induced-fluorescent dye. It was found that, just like the case of a circular cylinder, the secondary vortices from the top and bottom rows were out-of-phase with each other in the mode A regime, but in-phase with each other in the mode B regime. From the flow visualization, it was qualitatively proven that there is stronger interaction between braid regions in the mode B regime. At the same time, analysis of PIV measurements quantitatively demonstrated the presence of the stronger cross flow in mode B regime when compared to the mode A regime. It suggests that the in-phase symmetry of the mode B instability is the result of strong interaction between the top and bottom vortex rows. It was also observed that although the vorticity of the secondary vortices in the mode A regime was smaller, its circulation was more than twice that of mode B instability. Compared to primary vortices, the circulations of both mode A and mode B vortices were much smaller, which indicates that the secondary vortices most likely originate from the primary vortices. The wavelengths of the streamwise vortices in the mode A and B regimes were measured using the auto-correlation method, and were found to be 5.1 (±0.1)D, 1.3 (±0.1)D, and 1.1 (±0.1)D at Re=183 (mode A), 228 and 377 (both mode B), respectively. From the present investigation, mode A instability was likely to be due to the joint-effects of the deformation of primary vortex cores and the stretching of vortex sheets in the braid region. On the other hand, mode B instability was thought to originate from the "imprinting" process. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Fluids and Structures
ISSN: 08899746
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2006.08.012
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