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Title: Baking of flat bread in an impingement oven: An experimental study of heat transfer and quality aspects
Authors: Banooni, S.
Hosseinalipour, S.M.
Mujumdar, A.S. 
Taheran, E.
Bahiraei, M.
Taherkhani, P.
Keywords: Baking
Flat bread
Image processing
Impinging jets
Issue Date: Jul-2008
Citation: Banooni, S., Hosseinalipour, S.M., Mujumdar, A.S., Taheran, E., Bahiraei, M., Taherkhani, P. (2008-07). Baking of flat bread in an impingement oven: An experimental study of heat transfer and quality aspects. Drying Technology 26 (7) : 902-909. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A new impingement oven was designed and tested for its thermal and quality performance for baking of thin flat bread. The test facility was instrumented to monitor and record during the baking process. Bread temperature and weight loss were recorded on-line during baking at oven temperatures of 150, 175, 200, 225, and 250°C and 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 m/s jet velocities, respectively. Image processing was used for monitoring the bread volume and surface color changes during baking. Better baking conditions were obtained with the impingement oven in comparison with the conventional direct fired ovens. Experiments showed that a higher jet velocity can be used for flat bread baking at lower oven temperatures and yield shorter baking times for the same quality product. For very thin breads (such as the Iranian breads), results show that conduction heat transfer from the bottom surface of the tray must also be considered along with the convective heat transfer from the jets in selection of optimal operating parameters. It is noted that desirable baking conditions, e.g., good browning, uniform color, high volume increase, etc., can be achieved in a well-designed and operated impingement oven in shorter baking times compared to the conventional ovens.
Source Title: Drying Technology
ISSN: 07373937
DOI: 10.1080/07373930802142614
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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