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|Title:||Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater|
|Citation:||Tran, N.H., Hu, J., Li, J., Ong, S.L. (2014-01-01). Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Water Research 48 (1) : 443-456. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.09.053|
|Abstract:||There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Source Title:||Water Research|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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