Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0525-7
Title: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water environment of Singapore
Authors: Hu, J. 
Yu, J.
Tanaka, S.
Fujii, S.
Keywords: Coastal waters
PFOA
PFOS
Seasonal variation
Spatial distribution
Surface waters
Wastewaters
Issue Date: Mar-2011
Source: Hu, J., Yu, J., Tanaka, S., Fujii, S. (2011-03). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water environment of Singapore. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 216 (1-4) : 179-191. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0525-7
Abstract: Recently, there has been increasing concern about perfluorinated compounds, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) due to their biotic and abiotic persistence and chronic toxicity. To characterize the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of PFOS and PFOA in the aquatic and oceanic environment of Singapore, more than 100 water samples from reservoirs, rivers/canals, coastal waters, and treated effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were collected and analyzed in this study. Solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem MS (HPLC/MS/MS) was applied to quantitatively identify PFOS and PFOA. PFOS concentrations in surface waters, wastewaters and coastal waters were in the range of 2.2-87.3 ng/L, 5.8-532 ng/L, and 1.9-8.9 ng/L, respectively, while those of PFOA were 5.7-91.5 ng/L, 7.9-1,060 ng/L, 2.4-17.8 ng/L, respectively. Compared with surface waters and wastewaters, coastal waters had lower concentrations of PFOS and PFOA. Highest concentration of PFOA (532 ng/L) and PFOA (1,060 ng/L) were observed in treated effluents of two WWTPs. Our results suggest that coastal waters in the western area of Singapore are more heavily contaminated than those in the middle and eastern areas. The release of effluents from WWTPs is an important pathway by which perfluorinated compounds enter the oceanic environment. Between dry season and wet season, significant seasonal differences (p = 0.025) were observed in surface waters for PFOS only, while no discernable seasonal differences were found for both PFOS and PFOA in coastal waters and wastewaters. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Source Title: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/59154
ISSN: 00496979
DOI: 10.1007/s11270-010-0525-7
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