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|Title:||A bootstrapping framework for annotating and retrieving WWW images|
|Authors:||Feng, H. |
|Citation:||Feng, H.,Shi, R.,Chua, T.-S. (2004). A bootstrapping framework for annotating and retrieving WWW images. ACM Multimedia 2004 - proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Multimedia : 960-967. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||Most current image retrieval systems and commercial search engines use mainly text annotations to index and retrieve WWW images. This research explores the use of machine learning approaches to automatically annotate WWW images based on a predefined list of concepts by fusing evidences from image contents and their associated HTML text. One major practical limitation of employing supervised machine learning approaches is that for effective learning, a large set of labeled training samples is needed. This is tedious and severely impedes the practical development of effective search techniques for WWW images, which are dynamic and fast-changing. As web-based images possess both intrinsic visual contents and text annotations, they provide a strong basis to bootstrap the learning process by adopting a co-training approach involving classifiers based on two orthogonal set of features - visual and text. The idea of co-training is to start from a small set of labeled training samples, and successively annotate a larger set of unlabeled samples using the two orthogonal classifiers. We carry out experiments using a set of over 5,000 images acquired from the Web. We explore the use of different combinations of HTML text and visual representations. We find that our bootstrapping approach can achieve a performance comparable to that of the supervised learning approach with an F 1 measure of over 54%. At the same time, it offers the added advantage of requiring only a small initial set of training samples.|
|Source Title:||ACM Multimedia 2004 - proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Multimedia|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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