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Title: Prolonged effectiveness of Norplant® capsule implants: A 7-year study
Authors: Sivin, I.
Schechter, J.
Mishell, Jr. D.R.
Diaz, S.
Pavez, M.
Biswas, A. 
Alvarez, F.
Brache, V.
Darney, P.
Holma, P.
Wan, L.
Kiriwat, O.
Abdalla, K.
Campodonico, I.
Pasquale, S.
Keywords: Accidental pregnancy rates
Body weight and unintended pregnancy
Capsule implants
Duration of use
Levonorgestrel implants
Long-term effectiveness
Soft tubing implants
Issue Date: 2000
Source: Sivin, I., Schechter, J., Mishell, Jr. D.R., Diaz, S., Pavez, M., Biswas, A., Alvarez, F., Brache, V., Darney, P., Holma, P., Wan, L., Kiriwat, O., Abdalla, K., Campodonico, I., Pasquale, S. (2000). Prolonged effectiveness of Norplant® capsule implants: A 7-year study. Contraception 61 (3) : 187-194. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Soft tubing Norplant® contraceptive implants were studied in 1210 women for 7 years to measure the duration of effectiveness and the magnitude of the pregnancy rates over that time. Mean age at enrollment was 27.4 years. Of the enrollees, 42% were US residents. One-sixth (16.1%) weighed ≥70 kg at the time of implant placement. At the end of 5 years, the cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.1/100; at the end of 7 years, it was 1.9/100. No pregnancies occurred to any of the 400 women who enrolled in the study at age ≥30 years and who weighed <100 kg. Among women aged 18-33 years, the 7-year Norplant pregnancy rates are comparable to the median pregnancy rates of tubal sterilization methods for women of the same age and duration of use. For women aged ≥34 years, without regard to weight at admission, the 7-year effectiveness of soft tubing Norplant equals or surpasses that of tubal sterilization. For continuing implant users, annual pregnancy rates <1.0/100 in years 6 and 7, together with low cumulative pregnancy rates, testify that Norplant capsule implants remain highly effective for 7 years. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
Source Title: Contraception
ISSN: 00107824
DOI: 10.1016/S0010-7824(00)00095-0
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