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|Title:||Response of Purkinje neurons to hypobaric hypoxic exposure as shown by alteration in expression of glutamate receptors, nitric oxide synthases and calcium binding proteins|
|Authors:||Kaur, C. |
|Keywords:||Calcium binding proteins|
Nitric oxide synthases
|Source:||Kaur, C., Sivakumar, V., Ling, E.A., Singh, G., Singh, J. (2005). Response of Purkinje neurons to hypobaric hypoxic exposure as shown by alteration in expression of glutamate receptors, nitric oxide synthases and calcium binding proteins. Neuroscience 135 (4) : 1217-1229. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.06.023|
|Abstract:||Hypobaric hypoxia is known to impair muscular coordination. It is not known whether hypobaric hypoxia causes any damage to the Purkinje neurons which may be responsible for impairment of muscular coordination. Expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid GluR2/3, calcium binding proteins and nitric oxide synthases in the Purkinje neurons was examined in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. The mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, GluR2, GluR3 and nitric oxide synthases [neuronal, endothelial and inducible] was upregulated at 3 h peaking at 24 h after the exposure. This was sustained up to 3 days; thereafter, it was comparable to the controls. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a marked expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and GluR2/3 at the above time intervals. Immunoexpression of calbindin-D28k (calbindin) and parvalbumin was intense in the soma of Purkinje neurons in the control rats. It was, however, drastically downregulated up to 3 days after exposure. At 3 days the neuronal dendrites showed intense expression of calbindin which returned to control levels at 7 days. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly upregulated from 3 h to 3 days whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, localized in the blood vessels and Purkinje neurons, remained elevated up to 24 h after the exposure. A progressive darkening of the Purkinje neuron cell bodies was observed at ultrastructural level up to 3 days but degenerating cells were not observed. A salient alteration was the dilation and stacking of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the dendrites up to 14 days after the exposure. The present results suggest that hypobaric hypoxia leads to overexpression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 and GluR2/3 in Purkinje neurons that may be responsive to altered calcium levels as manifested by decreased expression of calcium binding proteins. This together with excess nitric oxide production may have led to transient ultrastructural changes. We propose that the functions of the Purkinje neurons may be altered in response to an acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia resulting in impairment of motor coordination. © 2005 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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