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|Title:||Permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery upregulates expression of cytokines and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord and urinary bladder in the adult rat|
|Authors:||Fu, D. |
calcitonin gene-related peptide
glial fibrillary acidic protein
|Citation:||Fu, D., Ng, Y.-K., Ling, E.-A., Gan, P. (2004). Permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery upregulates expression of cytokines and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord and urinary bladder in the adult rat. Neuroscience 125 (4) : 819-831. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.02.012|
|Abstract:||The expression pattern of proinflammatory cytokines, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in the spinal cord and the bladder in response to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. In this connection, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 in the lumbosacral spinal cord and the bladder as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction was upregulated. In the spinal cord, the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-1β was mainly localized in the ventral horn motoneurons contralateral to MCAO. In the bladder, TNF-α was mainly expressed in the inflammatory cells. The expression of nNOS immunoreactivity as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) staining in the spinal cord and bladder was also markedly increased in response to MCAO. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial expression of nNOS paralleled that of TNF-α and IL-1β in the spinal cord. On the other hand, there was no noticeable change in gene expression and immunoreactivity of SP and CGRP. The present results have shown that cytokines and nNOS expression are elevated in areas far removed from the primary site of ischemic infarct, namely, the lumbosacral spinal cord and bladder. This together with some neuronal deaths maybe linked to the dysfunction of the latter in a clinical stroke. On the other hand, the apparent lack of SP and CGRP changes following MCAO suggests that the two neurotransmitters are not directly involved. © 2004 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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