Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.03.046
Title: Age-related Macular Degeneration and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: The Cardiovascular Health Study
Authors: Sun, C.
Wong, T.Y. 
Klein, R.
Issue Date: 2009
Source: Sun, C., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R. (2009). Age-related Macular Degeneration and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Ophthalmology 116 (10) : 1913-1919. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.03.046
Abstract: Purpose: To examine the associations of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants: A total of 1786 white and African-American participants free of CHD or 2228 participants free of stroke, aged 69 to 97 years. Methods: AMD was evaluated from photographs taken in 1997 and 1998. Main Outcome Measures: Incident CHD and stroke ascertained using standardized methods. Results: Of the 1786 persons free of CHD, 303 developed incident CHD over 7 years. Participants with early AMD (n = 277) had a higher cumulative incidence of CHD than participants without early AMD (25.8% vs. 18.9%, P = 0.001). By adjusting for age, gender, race, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension status, fasting glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cigarette smoking, pack years of smoking, and C-reactive protein, the presence of early AMD was associated with an increased risk of incident CHD (hazard ratio 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.22). Late AMD (n = 25) was not associated with incident CHD (hazard ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-2.48). Among 2228 persons at risk, 198 developed incident stroke; neither early nor late AMD was associated with incident stroke. Conclusions: This study suggests persons with early AMD have a higher risk of CHD but not stroke in a population aged 69 to 97 years. This provides further support that AMD is associated with underlying systemic vascular disease. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2009 American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Source Title: Ophthalmology
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/26449
ISSN: 01616420
DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.03.046
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