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|Title:||Combustion smoke exposure induces up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, aquaporin 4, nitric oxide synthases and vascular permeability in the retina of adult rats|
nitric oxide synthases
retinal glia and neurons
vascular endothelial growth factor
|Citation:||Zou, Y.Y., Lu, J., Poon, D.J.F., Teo, A.L., Kaur, C., Cao, Q., Ling, E.A. (2009). Combustion smoke exposure induces up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, aquaporin 4, nitric oxide synthases and vascular permeability in the retina of adult rats. Neuroscience 160 (3) : 698-709. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.03.007|
|Abstract:||Retinal cells respond to various experimental stimuli including hypoxia, yet it remains to be investigated whether they react to smoke inhalation. We show here that retinal cells in rats, notably the ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes and blood vessels responded vigorously to a smoke challenge. The major changes included up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). VEGF expression was localized in the ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes and associated blood vessels. AQP4 was markedly enhanced in both astrocytes and Müller cells. Increase in vascular permeability after smoke exposure was evidenced by extravasation of serum derived rhodamine isothiocyanate which was internalized by Müller cells and ganglion cells. The tracer leakage was attenuated by aminoguanidine and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) treatment which suppressed retinal tissue NOS and nitric oxide (NO) levels concomitantly. It is suggested that VEGF, AQP4 and NO are involved in increased vascular permeability following acute smoke exposure in which hypoxia was ultimately implicated as shown by blood gases analysis. NOS inhibitors effectively reduced the vascular leakage and hence may ameliorate possible retinal edema in smoke inhalation. © 2009 IBRO.|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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