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|Title:||The sperm centriole: Its inheritance, replication and perpetuation in early human embryos|
|Source:||Sathananthan, A.H., Ratnam, S.S., Ng, S.C., Tarín, J.J., Gianaroli, L., Trounson, A. (1996-02). The sperm centriole: Its inheritance, replication and perpetuation in early human embryos. Human Reproduction 11 (2) : 345-356. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||The inheritance, replication and perpetuation of the sperm centriole in the early human embryo are reported. Both normal monospermic and abnormal dispermic embryos (n = 127) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Centrioles were traced from fertilization to the hatching blastocyst stage. The sperm proximal centriole is introduced into the oocyte at fertilization and remains attached to the expanding spermhead during sperm nuclear decondensation, as it forms the male pronucleus. A sperm aster is initially formed after the centriole duplicates at the pronuclear stage. At syngamy, centrioles occupy a pivotal position on opposite spindle poles, when the first mitotic figure is formed. Bipolar spindles were found in the majority of embryos, while tripolar spindles were seen in four dispermic embryos at syngamy. Two single centrioles were detected at two poles of two tripolar spindles, while two additional centrioles were located on the sides of a bipolar spindle of a dispermic embryo. Sperm tails were detected near spindle poles at syngamy and in later embryos. Typical centrioles showing the characteristic pinwheel organization of nine triplets of microtubules were evident. During centriolar replication, the daughter centriole grows laterally from the parent and gradually acquires pericentriolar material (PCM). The two centrioles are surrounded by a halo of electron-dense PCM, which nucleates microtubules, thus making it a typical centrosome. The usual alignment of diplosomes at right angles to each other was maintained. Centrioles were detected at all stages of embryonic cleavage from the 1-cell through 8-cell stages, right up to the hatching blastocyst stage. They were closely associated with nuclei at interphase, when they were often replicating, and were prominently located at spindle poles during the first four cell cycles. In blastocysts, they were detected in trophoblast, embryoblast and endoderm cells respectively. It is evident that the sperm centrosome is the functional active centrosome in the human, while the female is inactive but may contribute some centrosomal material to the zygote centrosome. It is very likely that the paternal centriole is the ancestor of the centrioles in fetal and adult somatic cells.|
|Source Title:||Human Reproduction|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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