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|Title:||Role of nitric oxide in the induction and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice|
|Authors:||Dambisya, Y.M. |
Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors
|Source:||Dambisya, Y.M., Lee, T.-L. (1996). Role of nitric oxide in the induction and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology 117 (5) : 914-918. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||1 The possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the induction and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence was studied in mice. A two-day repeated injection regimen was used to induce morphine tolerance and dependence. Tolerance was assessed by the tail flick test and physical dependence by naloxone challenge, on the third day. 2 Two days pretreatment with L-arginine (20 mg kg-1, twice daily) or D-N(G)-nitro arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, 20 mg kg-1, twice daily) alone had no effect on subsequent morphine antinociception. L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mg kg-1, twice daily) for two days led to a slight increase (not statistically significant) in morphine antinociception; while L-N(G)-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg kg-1, twice daily) for two days led to attenuation of morphine analgesia. None of the animals treated with these drugs alone showed signs characteristic of the opioid withdrawal syndrome upon naloxone challenge. 3 Induction phase L-arginine slowed the development of opioid tolerance and physical dependence, while L-NAME and L-NMMA led to a higher degree of tolerance but had no effect on the development of physical dependence. 4 L-Arginine and D-NAME had no effect on the expression of morphine tolerance and physical dependence. Expression phase L-NAME and L-NMMA, on the other hand, attenuated morphine tolerance and reduced the incidence of withdrawal signs. 5 NO may, therefore, play a role in both phases of morphine tolerance and dependence: elevation of NO levels during the induction phase delays the development of opioid tolerance/dependence, while inhibition of NO synthase accelerates the development of tolerance. Inhibition of NO attenuates the expression of both tolerance and physical dependence.|
|Source Title:||British Journal of Pharmacology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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