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|Title:||Reduplication and Discourse Particles|
|Source:||Wee, L. (2004). Reduplication and Discourse Particles. Reduplication and Discourse Particles. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||Two core semantic & pragmatic features of colloquial Singapore English (CSE) are discussed: reduplication & discourse particles. Analysis of data taken from the Grammar of Spoken Singapore English Corpus shows that there are grammatical constraints on CSE reduplication; CSE reduplication occurs only in specific grammatical categories. Nominal reduplication is limited in that it is only used in reference to someone who is personally close to the speaker (eg, Jeff-Jeff 'Jeffrey'; boy-boy 'boyfriend or son'). Adjectival reduplication is used to express intensity (eg, hot-hot 'very hot'). Verbal reduplication is sensitive to aspect & comprises two subtypes: (1) in which a single copy of the base verb is used, indicating attenuation (eg, cough-cough 'cough a little'); & (2) in which two copies of the base verb are used, expressing continuity (cough-cough-cough 'keep on coughing'). Possible substrate influence is discussed. Discourse particles in CSE are optional & occur in sentence-final position. Eight CSE discourse particles are identified. Three particles, ma, wat, & lor are used to indicate that a piece of information is obvious, but whereas ma is used solely for this purpose, wat is also used to express a challenge to an earlier proposition, & lor is used to express resignation. Lah marks speaker attitude, meh expresses skepticism, leh indicates a suggestion or request, hor asserts a proposition, & hah marks a question. It is noted that these two phenomena, reduplication & discourse particles, have typically been identified by many native speakers as "ungrammatical" features of Singapore English. C. Brennan.|
|Source Title:||Reduplication and Discourse Particles|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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