Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.360
Title: Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: The Singapore Chinese Health Study
Authors: Koh, W.-P. 
Robien, K.
Wang, R.
Govindarajan, S.
Yuan, J.-M.
Yu, M.C.
Keywords: alcohol drinking
Chinese
hepatocellular carcinoma
prospective cohort
smoking
viral hepatitis
Issue Date: 25-Oct-2011
Citation: Koh, W.-P., Robien, K., Wang, R., Govindarajan, S., Yuan, J.-M., Yu, M.C. (2011-10-25). Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: The Singapore Chinese Health Study. British Journal of Cancer 105 (9) : 1430-1435. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.360
Abstract: Background: Given the close correlation between smoking and alcohol intake in most epidemiologic studies, it is difficult to exclude the residual confounding effect of alcohol in the association between smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Method:We evaluated the association between smoking and risk of HCC in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort with a low prevalence of alcohol intake. Information on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption was obtained through in-person interviews conducted at enrolment. Results: After a mean of 11.5 years of follow-up, there were 394 incident cases of HCC. Participants who consumed more than two alcoholic drinks per day showed an increased risk for HCC (hazard ratio (HR)=2.24; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.46-3.41). After adjusting for alcohol consumption and other potential confounders, current vs never smokers had a statistically significant, increased risk of HCC (HR=1.63; 95% CI=1.27-2.10) that was dose-dependent (number of cigarettes per day, P for trend
Source Title: British Journal of Cancer
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/109660
ISSN: 00070920
DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2011.360
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