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Title: Retinopathy signs in people without diabetes: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis
Authors: Ojaimi, E.
Nguyen, T.T.
Klein, R.
Islam, F.M.A.
Cotch, M.F.
Klein, B.E.K.
Wang, J.-J.
Wong, T.Y. 
Issue Date: Apr-2011
Source: Ojaimi, E., Nguyen, T.T., Klein, R., Islam, F.M.A., Cotch, M.F., Klein, B.E.K., Wang, J.-J., Wong, T.Y. (2011-04). Retinopathy signs in people without diabetes: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Ophthalmology 118 (4) : 656-662. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Objective: To describe the prevalence of retinopathy and associations with cardiovascular risk factors in persons without diabetes in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese). Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants: We included 6176 subjects aged 45-84 years without diabetes, selected from 6 United States communities. Methods: Fundus images were taken using 45° digital camera through dark-adapted pupils and were graded for retinopathy as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale: microaneurysms, hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, hard exudates, venous beading, and new vessels. Main Outcome Measures: Retinopathy and the association with cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Prevalence rates of retinopathy in persons without diabetes were 12.5% overall, varying from 11.9% (white), 13.9% (black), 12.6% (Hispanic), to 17.2% (Chinese). Hypertension was strongly associated with retinopathy (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.75). After adjusting for age, gender, race, and other parameters, smoking (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.06) and increased internal carotid intima media thickness (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41) were associated with retinopathy. A range of serum inflammatory factors were examined, but none were found to be significant. Conclusions: Retinopathy in persons without diabetes is common, varies with race/ethnicity, and associated with cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, and carotid artery intima media thickness. Financial Disclosure(s): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Source Title: Ophthalmology
ISSN: 01616420
DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.08.007
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