Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.03.028
Title: Refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors: Pan, C.-W.
Ikram, M.K.
Cheung, C.Y. 
Choi, H.-W. 
Cheung, C.-M.G.
Jonas, J.B.
Saw, S.-M. 
Wong, T.-Y. 
Issue Date: Oct-2013
Citation: Pan, C.-W., Ikram, M.K., Cheung, C.Y., Choi, H.-W., Cheung, C.-M.G., Jonas, J.B., Saw, S.-M., Wong, T.-Y. (2013-10). Refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 120 (10) : 2058-2065. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.03.028
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Main Outcome Measures: A clear understanding of the relationship between refractive error and AMD provides insights into the pathophysiology of AMD. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase from their inception to July 2012 for population-based studies with data on refractive error and AMD assessed from retinal photographs at baseline and follow-up. We performed separate meta-analyses for cross-sectional studies and cohort studies using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) under random effects models, respectively. Results: Analysis of the 6 cross-sectional studies showed that hyperopia was associated with higher odds of prevalent AMD (pooled OR hyperopia vs. emmetropia: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.29) and that myopia was associated with lower odds of prevalent AMD (pooled OR myopia vs. emmetropia: 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92). Analysis from the 3 cohort studies showed nonsignificant associations. Analysis of the 5 cross-sectional and 2 cohort studies showed that each diopter increase in spherical equivalent was associated with increased odds of both prevalent (pooled OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12) and incident (pooled HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10) AMD. In 3 cross-sectional studies with data on axial length, each millimeter increase in axial length was associated with a decreased odd of prevalent AMD (pooled OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69-0.85). Conclusions: Refractive error is associated with AMD, although a temporal relationship cannot be determined on the basis of current evidence. Ophthalmologists should be aware that risk of AMD clinically seems to vary by refractive status. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Source Title: Ophthalmology
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/109120
ISSN: 01616420
DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.03.028
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