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Title: The economic cost of myopia in adults aged over 40 years in Singapore
Authors: Zheng, Y.-F.
Pan, C.-W.
Chay, J.
Wong, T.Y. 
Finkelstein, E.
Saw, S.-M. 
Keywords: Asians
Direct cost
Health economics
Issue Date: 24-Oct-2013
Citation: Zheng, Y.-F., Pan, C.-W., Chay, J., Wong, T.Y., Finkelstein, E., Saw, S.-M. (2013-10-24). The economic cost of myopia in adults aged over 40 years in Singapore. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 54 (12) : 7532-7537. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Purpose. To estimate the economic cost of myopia among adults aged 40 years and older in Singapore. Methods. A substudy of 113 Singaporean adults aged 40 years and older with myopia (spherical equivalent refraction of at least -0.5 diopters) in the population-based ancillary study of Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES) was conducted. A health expenditure questionnaire was used to assess the direct cost of myopia. Results. A total of 113 (90.4%) of 125 myopic subjects participated in the survey. The mean cost was approximately SGD$900 (USD$709) per person per year. The lifetime per capita cost ranged from SGD$295 (USD$232) for those with 0 year's duration to SGD$21,616 (USD$17,020) for those with 80 years' duration. Costs of spectacles, contact lenses, and optometry services were the major cost drivers, contributing to an average of 65% of total costs. Seven subjects (6.2%) had undergone LASIK surgery, resulting in a cost of SGD$4891 (USD$3851) per patient per year. Three subjects (2.7%) reported annual costs of (SGD$33 or USD$26) for complications due to LASIK surgery or contact lenses. There was an increasing cost of myopia in adults who started to wear glasses at earlier ages. By applying our cost data to age-specific myopia prevalence data in the whole population in the country, the total cost was estimated to be approximately SGD$959 (USD$755) million per year in Singapore. Conclusions. Myopia is associated with substantial out-of-pocket expenditure, imposing considerable economic burden for patients. Myopia is a disorder with immense societal costs and public health impact. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Source Title: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
ISSN: 01460404
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.13-12795
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