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Title: Passive bistatic radar imaging of aircraft using FM broadcast signals.
Keywords: Passive, Bistatic, Radar, Imaging, Tomography, Simulation
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2014
Citation: ABIVEN PIERRICK (2014-06-30). Passive bistatic radar imaging of aircraft using FM broadcast signals.. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A conventional Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) system must transmit a signal in order to detect approaching aircraft, and thus a frequency band has to be allocated to the ASR system. Passive bistatic radar (PBR) systems, on the other hand, reuse electromagnetic signals already present in order to detect, localize and identify an object within a given area. PBR is a well-known topic but prior research has mainly focused on detection and estimation, and relatively little work has been done on PBR imaging. The use of the FM band for that purpose is motivated by the geographic prevalence of radio broadcasting and the large size of an FM cell, and is the subject of this thesis. Firstly, the tomography principles applied to radar imaging are presented for the monostatic configuration and then generalized to the bistatic configuration. Secondly, the feasibility of using FM radio broadcasting signals is studied for imaging airborne aircraft using a realistic configuration and a validation of the theoretical work is done using a bright point model. The feasibility of the PBR imaging is considered for the Singaporean configuration which has two transmitters, one in Johor Bahru (Malaysia) and the other in Bukit Timah(Singapore). Thirdly, a second validation of the theory is undertaken by developing a new tool for simulating the electromagnetic field reflected off an object based on the NEC2 program. It is based on the transformation of a CAD model given by free license software to an interpretable model for NEC2 that composes of wire coordinates only. PBR images are built from the simulated RCS obtained. Finally an experimental data collection campaign has been executed to compare the theory and the simulation with the reality in the Singapore vicinity by using the FM radio broadcasting signal transmitted from Bukit Batok (Singapore) and airplanes approaching Changi Airport. A PBR system has been built and is able to track and detect targets but the too low power of the reflected signals prevents us from extracting the RCS of the targets and from generating their PBR images. The main contribution is the successful construction of interpretable PBR images given a realistic configuration and limited trajectories for the airplanes based on simulated data. It also provides a new tool for obtaining an estimation of the RCS of an airplane at a low frequency for a limited cost. Moreover, a PBR system has been built and was able to detect and to track real targets landing and taking off at Changi airport. Finally, all the work was derived for a special configuration but the methodology can be easily applied in other configurations.
Appears in Collections:Master's Theses (Open)

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