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|Title:||Packaging of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, for air transport in a closed system|
|Authors:||Teo, L.H. |
|Citation:||Teo, L.H.,Chen, T.W.,Lee, B.H. (1989-06). Packaging of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, for air transport in a closed system. Aquaculture 78 (3-4) : 321-332. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||The aim of this work was to investigate the application of clinoptilolite, tris buffer and 2-phenoxyethanol in controlling the aquatic environment of a closed system involving guppies in polyethylene bags containing water overlaid with oxygen. In the experiments, 20 guppies were placed in a sealed plastic bag containing 400 ml water maintained at 25°C for 24 h. Clinoptilolite significantly reduced the concentration of ammonia in the water. The best concentration appeared to be 20 g/l since it gave the second greatest reduction of ammonia and the lowest mortality rate of the guppies. Higher concentrations resulted in turbidity of the water and higher mortality. Tris buffer (pH 8) was effective in maintaining a higher and more stable pH; the lowest mortality rate was found in the group treated with 0.02 M tris buffer. 2-Phenoxyethanol at concentrations of 0.11 and 0.22 g/l was effective in maintaining a zero mortality rate of guppies. A combination of 2-phenoxyethanol (0.11 g/l) with clinoptilolite (20 g/l) or tris buffer (0.02 M) was effective in maintaining low mortality rates of guppies but a combination of clinoptilolite and tris buffer did not work (11.7% mortality). A combination of all three chemicals successfully maintained the mortality rates of guppies at low levels up to 48 h with 30 fish in each bag. However if the number of fish in each bag was increased to 40, the mortality rate was too high (17.5%) to be acceptable. Increasing the dosage of 2-phenoxyethanol to 0.22 g/l and increasing the water volume in each bag to 600 ml allowed us to increase the number of fish in each bag to 50 or even 60 and still maintain reasonably low mortality rates of 2-6% for up to 48 h, a time period more than adequate for the shipment of fish by air to any oversea destination. In all the above experiments neomycin sulphate at 20 mg/l was added to the water to prevent a bacterial build-up. The results of this work indicate that guppies can be transported at higher packing densities, for long periods of time, and can be received in good condition when the method developed here is applied as a packing practice. © 1989.|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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