Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1080/03639040802680255
Title: Air-dictated bottom spray process: Impact of fluid dynamics on granule growth and morphology
Authors: Liew, C.V. 
Er, D.Z.L.
Heng, P.W.S. 
Keywords: Bottom spray
Fluid dynamics
Fluidized bed granulation
Granule growth
Granule shape
Issue Date: 2009
Citation: Liew, C.V., Er, D.Z.L., Heng, P.W.S. (2009). Air-dictated bottom spray process: Impact of fluid dynamics on granule growth and morphology. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 35 (7) : 866-876. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1080/03639040802680255
Abstract: Background: Growing interest in the use of the less-explored bottom spray technique for fluidized bed granulation provided impetus for this study. Aim: The impact of fluid dynamics (air accelerator insert diameter; partition gap) and wetting (binder spray rate) on granule properties were investigated. Method: In this 33 full factorial study, the results were fitted to a quadratic model using response surface methodology. The air velocity at the spray granulation zone for the investigated conditions was measured using a pitot tube. Results: Air accelerator insert diameter correlated to measured air velocity at the spray granulation zone and was found to not only dictate growth but also influence granule morphology. The partition gap was found to play important roles in regulating particle movement into the spray granulation zone and optimizing process yields, whereas binder spray rate significantly affected granule morphology but not granule size. Conclusions: Unlike conventional fluidized bed granulation, ease of modulation of fluid dynamics and insensitivity of the bottom spray process to wetting allow flexible control of granule size, shape, and flow. Its good drying ability also indicated potential use in granulating moisture-sensitive materials.
Source Title: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/105627
ISSN: 03639045
DOI: 10.1080/03639040802680255
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