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Title: Structure and evolutionary origin of Ca2+-dependent herring type II antifreeze protein
Authors: Liu, Y. 
Li, Z. 
Lin, Q. 
Kosinski, J.
Seetharaman, J.
Bujnicki, J.M.
Sivaraman, J. 
Hew, C.-L. 
Issue Date: 20-Jun-2007
Citation: Liu, Y., Li, Z., Lin, Q., Kosinski, J., Seetharaman, J., Bujnicki, J.M., Sivaraman, J., Hew, C.-L. (2007-06-20). Structure and evolutionary origin of Ca2+-dependent herring type II antifreeze protein. PLoS ONE 2 (6) : -. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: In order to survive under extremely cold environments, many organisms produce antifreeze-proteins (AFPs). AFPs inhibit the growth of ice crystals and protect organisms from freezing damage. Fish AFPs can be classified into five distinct types based on their structures. Here we report the structure of herring AFP (hAFP), a Ca2+-dependent fish type II AFP. It exhibits a fold similar to the C-type (Ca2+-dependent) lectins with unique ice-binding features. The 1.7 A crystal structure of hAFP with bound Ca2+ and site directed mutagenesis reveal an ice-binding site consisting of Thr96, Thr98 and Ca2+-coordinating residues Asp94 and Glu99, which initiate hAFP adsorption onto the [10-10] prism plane of the ice lattice. The hAFP-ice interacticn is further strengthened by the bound Ca2+ through the coordination with a water molecule of the ice-lattice. This Ca2+-coordinated ice-binding mechanism is distinct from previously proposed mechanisms for other AFPs. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that all type II AFPs evolved from the common ancestor and developed different ice-binding modes. We clarify the evolutionary relationship of type II AFPs to sugar-binding lectins. © 2007 Liu et al.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000548
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