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Title: Nucleophosmin Interacts with HEXIM1 and Regulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription
Authors: Gurumurthy, M.
Tan, C.H.
Ng, R.
Zeiger, L.
Lau, J.
Lee, J.
Dey, A.
Philp, R.
Li, Q.
Lim, T.M. 
Price, D.H.
Lane, D.P.
Chao, S.-H.
Keywords: AML
RNA polymerase II
Issue Date: 25-Apr-2008
Source: Gurumurthy, M., Tan, C.H., Ng, R., Zeiger, L., Lau, J., Lee, J., Dey, A., Philp, R., Li, Q., Lim, T.M., Price, D.H., Lane, D.P., Chao, S.-H. (2008-04-25). Nucleophosmin Interacts with HEXIM1 and Regulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription. Journal of Molecular Biology 378 (2) : 302-317. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Hexamethylene bis-acetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) was identified earlier as an inhibitor of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which is a key transcriptional regulator of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Studies show that more than half of P-TEFb in cells is associated with HEXIM1, which results in the inactivation of P-TEFb. Here, we identify a nucleolar protein, nucleophosmin (NPM), as a HEXIM1-binding protein. NPM binds to HEXIM1 in vitro and in vivo, and functions as a negative regulator of HEXIM1. Over-expression of NPM leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of HEXIM1, resulting in activation of P-TEFb-dependent transcription. In contrast, an increase in HEXIM1 protein levels and a decrease in transcription are detected when NPM is knocked down. We show that a cytoplasmic mutant of NPM, NPMc+, associates with and sequesters HEXIM1 in the cytoplasm resulting in higher RNA Pol II transcription. Correspondingly, cytoplasmic localization of endogenous HEXIM1 is detected in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line containing the NPMc+ mutation, suggesting the physiological importance of HEXIM1-NPMc+ interaction. Over-expression of NPM has been detected in tumors of various histological origins and our results may provide a possible molecular mechanism for the proto-oncogenic function of NPM. Furthermore, considering that 35% of AML patients are diagnosed with NPMc+ mutation, our findings suggest that in some cases of AML, RNA Pol II transcription may be disregulated by the malfunction of NPM and the mislocation of HEXIM1. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Molecular Biology
ISSN: 00222836
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.02.055
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