Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-011-0626-7
Title: Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, during aestivation or exposure to ammonia
Authors: Loong, A.M.
Chng, Y.R.
Chew, S.F.
Wong, W.P.
Ip, Y.K. 
Keywords: Aestivation
Ammonia
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase
Lungfish
Ornithine-urea cycle
Protopterus annectens
Urea
Issue Date: Apr-2012
Citation: Loong, A.M., Chng, Y.R., Chew, S.F., Wong, W.P., Ip, Y.K. (2012-04). Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, during aestivation or exposure to ammonia. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 182 (3) : 367-379. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-011-0626-7
Abstract: This study aimed to obtain the full sequence of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (cpsIII) from, and to determine the mRNA expression of cpsIII in, the liver of P. annectens during aestivation in air, hypoxia or mud, or exposure to environmental ammonia (100 mmol l -1 NH 4Cl). The complete coding cDNA sequence of cpsIII from the liver of P. annectens consisted of 4530 bp, which coded for 1,510 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 166. 1 kDa. The Cps III of P. annectens consisted of a mitochondrial targeting sequence of 44 amino acid residues, a GAT domain spanning from tyrosine 45 to isoleucine 414, and a methylglyoxal synthase-like domain spanning from valine 433 to arginine 1513. Two cysteine residues (cysteine 1337 and cysteine 1347) that are characteristic of N-acetylglutamate dependency were also present. The critical Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad (cysteine 301, histidine 385 and glutamate 387) together with methionine 302 and glutamine 305 affirmed that P. annectens expressed Cps III and not Cps I. A comparison of the translated amino acid sequence of Cps III from P. annectens with CPS sequences from other animals revealed that it shared the highest similarity with elasmobranch Cps III. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that P. annectens CPS III could have evolved from Cps III of elasmobranchs. Indeed, Cps III from P. annectens used mainly glutamine as the substrate, and its activity decreased significantly when glutamine and ammonia were included together in the assay system. There were significant increases (9- to 12-fold) in the mRNA expression of cps III in the liver of fish during the induction phase (days 3 and 6) of aestivation in air. Aestivation in hypoxia or in mud had a delayed effect on the increase in the mRNA expression of cps III, which extended beyond the induction phase of aestivation, reiterating the importance of differentiating effects that are intrinsic to aestivation from those intrinsic to hypoxia. Furthermore, results from this study confirmed that environmental ammonia exposure led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of cps III in the liver of P. annectens, alluding to the important functional role of urea not only as a product of ammonia detoxification but also as a putative internal cue for aestivation. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Source Title: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/101121
ISSN: 01741578
DOI: 10.1007/s00360-011-0626-7
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