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|Title:||Combining molecular and morphological analyses of water strider phylogeny (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha): Effects of alignment and taxon sampling|
|Source:||Damgaard, J., Andersen, N.M., Meier, R. (2005-04). Combining molecular and morphological analyses of water strider phylogeny (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha): Effects of alignment and taxon sampling. Systematic Entomology 30 (2) : 289-309. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2004.00275.x|
|Abstract:||The semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Gerromorpha), comprising water striders and their allies (c. 1900 described species), are familiar inhabitants of water surfaces in all continents. Recent fossil evidence indicates that the evolutionary history of semiaquatic bugs spans more than 120 million years of geological time. At present, our insight into the phylogeny of higher taxa is based upon Andersen's manual cladistic analysis of a suite of morphological characters. The present work expands the phylogenetic insight with numerical cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular datasets (partial sequences of 16S and 28S rDNA) for forty species of Gerromorpha covering most higher taxa (families, subfamilies), estimates of branch support, character incongruence, and topological congruence (nodal stability). For the molecular data we apply different alignment options (manual vs numerical alignment; multiple alignment vs direct optimization), treat insertion-deletion events (indels) as either missing data or as a fifth character state, subject the data to a sensitivity analysis, and estimate topological congruence between different analysis trees. Relationships change considerably under different analysis conditions, which means that there is little node stability, and for selecting preferred analysis conditions there is conflicting evidence from rescaled incongruence length difference and the key node criterion. Based on the analysis of the combined morphological and molecular datasets, this study supports the close relationship between the families Gerridae, Hermatobatidae and Veliidae (superfamily Gerroidea), but not the monophyly of the family Veliidae. The results suggest that the genus Ocellovelia (Ocelloveliinae) should be excluded from this family and placed as a sister group to Gerridae + the remaining species of Veliidae. Our study also supports a close relationship between the subfamilies Halobatinae and Ptilomerinae (Gerridae), and that the subfamily Veliinae is probably nonmonophyletic. © 2004 The Royal Entomological Society.|
|Source Title:||Systematic Entomology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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