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|Title:||Ammonia as a respiratory gas in water and air-breathing fishes|
|Citation:||Randall, D.J., Ip, Y.K. (2006-11). Ammonia as a respiratory gas in water and air-breathing fishes. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 154 (1-2) : 216-225. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2006.04.003|
|Abstract:||Ammonia is produced in the liver and excreted as NH3 by diffusion across the gills. Elevated ammonia results in an increase in gill ventilation, perhaps via stimulation of gill oxygen chemo-receptors. Acidification of the water around the fish by carbon dioxide and acid excretion enhances ammonia excretion and constitutes "environmental ammonia detoxification". Fish have difficulties in excreting ammonia in alkaline water or high concentrations of environmental ammonia, or when out of water. The mudskipper, Periphthalmodon schlosseri, is capable of active NH4 + transport, maintaining low internal levels of ammonia. To prevent a back flux of NH3, these air-breathing fish can increase gill acid excretion and reduce the membrane NH3 permeability by modifying the phospholipid and cholesterol compositions of their skin. Several air-breathing fish species can excrete ammonia into air through NH3 volatilization. Some fish detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. The brains of some fish can tolerate much higher levels of ammonia than other animals. Studies of these fish may offer insights into the nature of ammonia toxicity in general. © 2006.|
|Source Title:||Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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